Norfolk, Virginia—May 21-24 The 1985 Spring Meeting/STAR Symposium of The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) will take place May 21-24 at the Omni International Hotel, located right on the waterfront in Norfolk, Va. The meeting will be hosted by the SNAME Hampton Roads Section.

The theme for this year's meeting, the ninth combined Spring Meeting/ STAR Symposium, is "Innovative Marine Technology." (STAR is an acronym for Ship Technology and Research, a concept 10 years ago of SNAME past president, the late Phillip Eisenberg.) In keeping with this, the 1985 meeting will provide a forum for the presentation of state-of-the-art developments that are of major and practical importance to the interests of the industry. The 21 technical papers to be presented during the three-day program will cover a diversity of topics, broad enough to interest everyone. The papers will discuss shipbuilding standards, machinery developments, CAD/CAM considerations, ship design topics and human factors. An entertaining social program, mainly centered on Norfolk's exciting new waterfront development, will also be provided along with a special spouse/guest program and other events. The outstanding tech- nical and social programs have been organized by the Hampton Roads Section—The Steering Committee under the chairmanship of Richard Broad, and the Technical Program Committee under the direction of Roy L. Harrington, both of Newport News Shipbuilding. TECHNICAL SESSIONS Wednesday, May 22, 1985 Poplar Session 9:00 a.m. "The Role of the U.S. Coast Guard in the Development of Shipbuilding Standards," John D. Koski.

This paper describes the standards- development program jointly sponsored by SNAME Panel SP-6 (Standards and Specifications) and ASTM Committee F-25 (Shipbuilding Standards). The active participation of the Coast Guard in the development of these industry standards ensures compliance with federal statutory requirements. The benefits include a reduction and simplification of government regulations, reduced plan review time, uniform approval criteria, and product quality assurance.

10:00 a.m. "The Low Speed Diesel Engine, Now—And In The Future," Claus Windelev. During the last several years, the competitive market conditions for low-speed diesels have resulted in unprecedented improvements in these engines. This paper presents the results obtained from extensive prototype tests and reviews some of the current research concerning the engine working processes. Finally, predictions are made relative to possible improvements to the basic uniflow scavenging principle of the lowspeed two-stroke cross-head diesel engine.

11:00 a.m. "The Development of the DDG-51 High Power Density Gear," R. C. Bryant. The stringent space and weight design criteria for the DDG-51 suggest the use of surface hardened and ground propulsion gearing. By drawing upon the base of highly successful experience with this type of gearing in several NATO countries, the design and manufacture of surface- hardened and ground gears for the DDG-51 can be confidently undertaken. Recent advancements in the accuracy of grinding and metrology equipment are highly beneficial. 2:00 p.m. "Propeller Blade Dynamic Dynamic Stresses," J. F. Kuo and W. S. Vorus.

The state-of-the-art for predicting propeller blade stresses is the quasi-static method, wherein the hydrodynamic pressure loads and the blade structural response are calculated separately. This paper presents a fully consistent structural/ hydrodynamic model for predicting propeller blade dynamic behavior. The advanced theory and numerical model are applied to a skew series of propeller data, both with and without an allowance for blade dynamics.

3:00 p.m. "Accuracy Control: The CAD/CAM Interface," Richard L. Storch and James N. Buttrick, Jr.

An effective accuracy control system is required to evaluate the productivity of the individual work processes that comprise zone-oriented ship production methods. This paper describes the development of user-friendly computer software to support an accuracy control system, with emphasis on the logic required to provide links to a CAD/CAM system. File structure characteristics that facilitate computerized data collection, handling, and analysis are discussed.

TECHNICAL SESSIONS Thursday, May 23, 1985 Poplar Session 9:00 a.m. "The Design of Tankers for Restricted Draft Service," Masao Ono, Katsuyoshi Takekuma, and Noboru Kawaguchi. In order to reduce crude-oil transportation costs in trade routes having restricted water depths, two series of shallow-draft tankers were developed. This paper is a presentation of the parametric studies and extensive investigations necessary to substantiate the development of these ships. It covers considerations such as: ship principal characteristics, propulsive performance, resistance in waves, maneuverability, seakeeping, vibration, and wave-inflicted bow damage.

10:00 a.m. "Design Considerations for Energy Efficient Propulsion Plants," Y. Tanaka, S.

Yabuki, S. Takahashi, H. Hamada, and H. Hatada.

This paper presents engineering analyses conducted to formulate the design of an energy-efficient propulsion plant. Emphasis is placed upon a rigorous evaluation of a wasteheat recovery system. Several alternative means of producing electrical power are investigated, and an advanced turbo-generator system is introduced which includes a mixedpressure turbine. Design alternatives to reduce energy requirements are also presented.

1 1 : 0 0 a.m. " E x p e r i m e n t al Study on Rough-Sea Performance of a Lower Powered Large Full Ship," T. Takahashi and S. Asai.

Increased fuel costs have resulted in a world-wide trend to larger, full oceangoing vessels with less propulsion power and reduced service speeds. This paper presents model basin test results and analytical predictions of the impact of rough seas upon the speed and course-keeping ability of these ships. The results indicate that the propulsive performance and course keeping ability of lower powered ships are decidedly more severely affected by rough weather. A tentative minimum power limit is proposed.

2:00 p.m. "Ship Design Considerations for Minimal Vibration," M. Mano, Y. Yoshida and K. Tanida.

This paper describes several innovative methods of minimizing hazardous vibratory conditions such as those that can be caused by fuelefficient, long-stroke diesel engines having few cylinders. Techniques discussed include the phasing of the propeller and engine alternating forces, the installation of a vibration balancer, the use of air-spring vibration isolators, the application of dynamic vibration absorbers, and the use of a recently developed friction stay.

3:00 p.m. "The Innovative Design of the RACER Turbine- Condenser," U. Niatas and J. P. Vallar.

The purpose of the RACER (Rankine Cycle Energy Recovery) system is to reduce the fuel consumption of gas-turbine powered naval combatant vessels. The novel aspects of the turbine-condenser module of the RACER system are presented in this paper. The turbine and condenser are structurally combined to minimize space requirements and improve shock resistance. Design details are presented, as are manufacturing techniques.

TECHNICAL SESSIONS Thursday, May 23, 1985 York Session 9:00 a.m. "Human Factors: The Fleet Perspective," John W.


While naval systems are becoming more complex, the quantity and the quality of the personnel who will operate and maintain these systems is declining. An overview of U.S. Navy operability problems, relevant demographic trends, and Soviet personnel issues (in the context of the potential vulnerabilities they represent for the Soviet military) is presented. Also, the need to change the traditional approach to manpower, personnel, and training issues in the acquisition of new systems is discussed.

10:00 a.m. "Human Factors in Naval Ship Design—An Update," R. Bost, J. Castle and J.


This paper is an update of the initiatives, primarily in the area of human engineering, to improve the design of naval ships. The results obtained from the application of human engineering principles are discussed. Lessons learned in the integration of human engineering requirements into ship specifications are reviewed as are new human engineering initiatives to improve fleet readiness and reduce operating costs.

11:00 a.m. "Habitability Controls in Relation to Human Factors," Albert A. Saklem and Albert Almeida.

The habitability standards of the United States Navy were originated to require and maintain a standard of living aboard ships and submarines that is supportive of the health, morale, and overall mission readiness of personnel. Human factors, as discussed in the paper, deal with the design of man-environment systems and are considered in terms of anthropometry (e.g. passage widths), physiology (e.g. air conditioning), psychology (e.g. privacy), and sociology (e.g. personnel grouping). 2:00 p.m. "Innovations in the Control of Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems," Donald B.

Malkoff and Herman L. Williams. Personnel are no longer able to fulfill the demands imposed upon them in their role as operators of gas turbine propulsion control units. Their greatest need is for assistance in the areas of fault diagnosis and the determination of proper corrective responses. Recommendations are offered for the most effective use of both humans and computers and their relationship in military shipboard propulsion control.

3:00 p.m. "Microprocessor Based Real-Time Simulation of a Multiple Gas Turbine Generator Electric Plant for Embedded Training," A. Stypulkowski and E. Pollak.

A technique is presented in this paper to simulate, in real time, a multiple gas turbine generator electric plant for an embedded training application. A typical naval electric plant was selected to demonstrate an application of the technique. The simulation includes the following plant operations: single generator operation, paralleling, load sharing and load shedding. Casualty simulations are included in the models.

TECHNICAL SESSIONS Friday, May 24, 1985 Poplar Session 9:00 a.m. "Non-Contact Measurement of Out-of-Plane Distortion of Welded Structures," Kiochi Masubuchi and Walter J. C. Cook.

This paper describes a novel method of non-contact measurement of the out-of-plane distortion of welded structures. An optical laser interferometry procedure is used where two side beams of phase- locked monochromatic light are directed onto the surface of a weldment. When a minute deviation from a perfect plane exists on the specimen surface, the pattern of interference fringes is distorted. The shape and amount of distortion can be determined by studying the shape of the interference pattern. 10:00 a.m. "An Analysis of the Factors Determining Preferred Windward Sail Shapes and the Application of the Resulting Concepts to a Fraction- COOPER INDUSTRIES ally Rigged Sailing Yacht, the J/24," Dan Winters.

In fiercely competitive one-design sail boat racing, strict class rules minimize the differences in boats. In such racing, even the smallest gain in boat speed is extremely important. There is an ongoing search for differences in tune that will yield an increase in speed. This paper is based upon a detailed study of changes in rig tune on a J/24 and the resultant concepts which offer a greater range of adjustment and, thus, greater potential speed. 11:00 a.m. "A Preliminary Design Method for FRP Sandwich- Cored Panels," Deborah Weissman—Berman.

This paper presents a preliminary design procedure for the analysis of sandwich-cored composite panels. The designer can now predict the flexural behavior of cored laminate panels having outer layers of mat and woven roving which cannot effectively be analyzed using classical composite laminate theory. Predictions are compared with test results, and the failure modes of FRP sandwich- cored panels are discussed.

York Session 9:00 a.m. "Determining Effects of Ship Bridge Design on Ship Control," H. Schuffel.

A paramount consideration in the design of a ship's bridge is the watch officer's ability to obtain and act upon the information required to effectively control the ship. This paper describes two experiments that were conducted to quantify the effects of specific design alternatives upon a ship's controllability. In the first experiment, the bridge arrangement is evaluated; in the second, the in-port use of radar is analyzed. 10:00 a.m. "The Importance of Crew Training and Standard Operating Procedures in Commercial Vessel Accident Prevention," Paul J. Esbensen, Ralph E. Johnson, and Phyllis Kayten.

Personnel failure or human error is listed as the primary cause in 43% of the thousands of accidents reported to the U.S. Coast Guard each year and is probably involved in 80 r< of all casualties. This paper discusses 10 specific accidents, ranging from the largest semi-submersible drill rig in the world to a 22-foot sailboat, where the lack of crew training or standard operating procedures contributed to the accident. Finally, the paper presents recommendations to improve the safe operation of commercial ships. 11:00 a.m. "Marine Lubrication Systems," George E. Ponton.

The design criteria specified for main and auxiliary lubrication systems can heavily impact the performance and reliability of a propulsion plant. This paper provides an in-depth discussion of various design considerations such as system design, pump selection, and noise characteristics. The paper also includes design guidelines developed to ensure that a lubrication system incorporates state-of-the-art technology. SOCIAL EVENTS Early Bird Reception 6:30 p.m.-8:30 p.m.

Tuesday, May 21, 1985 Poplar Hall, OMNI Hotel To greet those who arrive early on the eve of the 1985 Spring Meeting, a reception (no host) will be held in Poplar Hall of the Omni hotel. Poplar Hall is located adjacent to the registration area.

Special Breakfast (by Invitation Only) Authors and Moderators: Authors and Moderators will meet for breakfast at 7:30 a.m. on the day of their session.

President's Reception 6:30 p.m.-9:30 p.m.

Wednesday, May 22, 1985 The Mariners' Museum, Newport News Society President Perry W.

Nelson and Mrs. Grace Nelson will join with other officials to greet all registrants at a cocktail party and buffet dinner to be held in the inner courtyard of the Mariners' Museum. The museum's exhibit areas will be open for the exclusive viewing by registrants and the gift shop will be open. Transportation by bus from the Omni Hotel will be provided.

President's Luncheon 12:00-2:00 p.m.

Thursday, May 23, 1985 Providence & Stratford Halls Preceded by a cash bar opening at 12:00 noon, a luncheon will be served at 12:30 p.m. Featured on the program will be the presentation of awards and an address by Society President Perry W. Nelson.

This luncheon is open to all registrants and their guests. Seating will be random.

Dinner Cruise 6:00 p.m.-10:00 p.m.

Thursday, May 23, 1985 Aboard Cruiseship NEWSPIRIT Chartered for the Society's exclusive use, the passenger cruiseship New Spirit will make a special sunset cruise of Hampton Roads. The sights will include a close view of Norshipco, Newport News Shipbuilding and the world's largest Naval Operating Base. See these and more while enjoying fine dining, dancing, and live entertainment. An open bar will commence with the 5:30 p.m. boarding and end with departure at 7:00 p.m. Cash bar thereafter. Tickets will be limited, so pre-registration is recommended.

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